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Join the discussion Uzbekistan is predicted to be one of the fastest-growing economies in the world top 26 in future decades, according to a survey by global bank HSBC.

As of [update] , Uzbekistan has the largest population out of all the countries in Central Asia, and is the second-largest if Kazakhstan is excluded.

Its 32,, [] citizens comprise nearly half the region's total population. The population of Uzbekistan is very young: There is some controversy about the percentage of the Tajik population.

Today, the majority of Uzbeks are admixed and represent varying degrees of diversity. There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistan , mostly in Tashkent and Samarkand.

The U. There were 94, Jews in Uzbekistan in [] about 0. Fewer than 5, Jews remained in Uzbekistan in Russians in Uzbekistan represented 5. During the Soviet period, Russians and Ukrainians constituted more than half the population of Tashkent.

Approximately , Crimean Tatars continue to live in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan has a Life expectancy in Uzbekistan is 66 years among men and 72 years among women.

Islam is the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, although Soviet power — discouraged the expression of religious belief, and they were repressed during its existence as a Soviet Republic.

Despite the predominance of Islam and its rich history in the country, the practice of the faith is far from monolithic. Uzbeks have practised many versions of Islam.

The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularisation throughout the 20th century has left a wide variety of Islamic practices in Central Asia.

The end of Soviet control in Uzbekistan in did not bring an immediate upsurge of religion-associated fundamentalism , as many had predicted, but rather a gradual re-acquaintance with the precepts of the Islamic faith and a gradual resiurgence of Islam in the country.

The Jewish community in the Uzbek lands flourished for centuries, with occasional hardships during the reigns of certain rulers.

During the rule of Tamerlane in the 14th century Jews contributed greatly to his efforts to rebuild Samarkand and a great Jewish centre was established there.

After the area came under Russian rule in , Jews were granted equal rights with the local Muslim population. By only one synagogue out of 30 remained in Samarkand; nevertheless, underground Jewish community life continued during the Soviet era.

The Uzbek language is one of the Turkic languages close to Uyghur language and both of them belong to the Karluk branch of the Turkic language family.

It is the only official national language and since is officially written in the Latin alphabet.

In the Latin alphabet was introduced and went through several revisions throughout the s. Finally, in , the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced by Soviet authorities and was used until the fall of Soviet Union.

In Uzbekistan shifted back to the Latin script Uzbek alphabet , which was modified in and is being taught in schools since Educational establishments teach only the Latin notation.

At the same time, the Cyrillic notation is common among the older generation. Karakalpak , a Turkic language closer to Kazakh and spoken by half a million people, is spoken primarily in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and has an official status on the territory.

Although the Russian language is not an official language in the country, it is widely used in many fields.

Digital information from the government is bilingual. The country is also home to approximately one million native Russian speakers. The Tajik language a variety of Persian is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks.

More than , people also speak the Kazakh language. There are no language requirements to attain citizenship in Uzbekistan. In April , a draft bill was introduced in Uzbekistan to regulate the exclusive use of the Uzbek language in government affairs.

Under this legislation, government workers could incur fines for doing work in languages other than Uzbek. Though unsuccessful, it was met with criticism by the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman, Maria Zakharova.

According to the official source report, as of 10 March , the number of cellular phone users in Uzbekistan reached 7 million, up from 3.

MCT Corp. As of 1 July , the estimated number of internet users was 1. Internet Censorship exists in Uzbekistan and in October the government toughened internet censorship by blocking access to proxy servers.

The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts.

Tashkent , the nation's capital and largest city, has a three-line rapid transit system built in , and expanded in after ten years' independence from the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union.

For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekov , the Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city.

There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered. Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo.

Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries. Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighbouring former republics of the Soviet Union.

Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand.

The new high-speed electric train Talgo , called Afrosiyob , was manufactured by Patentes Talgo S.

Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off.

Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans.

With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia. The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Army , although it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorised infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The Uzbek Armed Forces' equipment is standard, mostly consisting those of post-Soviet inheritance and newly crafted Russian and some American equipment.

The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state , and supported an active program by the U.

The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U. Central Command 's request for access to an air base, the Karshi-Khanabad airfield, in southern Uzbekistan.

However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U. The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in , about a quarter of its military budget , the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

When the U. In late July , the government of Uzbekistan ordered the United States to vacate an air base in Karshi-Kanabad near Uzbekistan's border with Afghanistan within days.

Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West.

It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union , formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West.

The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West. The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan.

Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among Uzbekistan's population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the — protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the US and UK.

Karimova-Tillyaeva and her team have been instrumental in promoting inter-cultural dialogue by increasing European society's awareness of Uzbekistan's cultural and historical heritage.

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

When Uzbekistan gained independence in , there was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region. The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith.

As of , over half of Uzbekistan's population was said to be Muslim, though in an official survey few of that number had any real knowledge of the religion or knew how to practice it.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam , which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital.

Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modes , similar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone.

Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate , with about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International School , a K international curriculum school.

Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government.

Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

Uzbekistan's universities create almost , graduates annually, though the general standard of university graduates, and the overall level of education within the tertiary system, is low.

The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas , maintaining campuses in Tashkent.

Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture , as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterised as "noodle-rich".

Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes.

Uzbekistan's signature dish is palov plov or osh , a main course typically made with rice , pieces of meat , and grated carrots and onions.

Oshi nahor , or morning plov , is served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.

Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorva , a soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually mutton , and fresh vegetables; norin and laghman , noodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; manti , chuchvara , and somsa , stuffed pockets of dough served as an appetiser or a main course; dimlama , a meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabs , usually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage consumed throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance. Black tea is preferred in Tashkent , but both green and black teas are consumed daily, without milk or sugar.

Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: green or black to every guest.

Ayran , a chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea. The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Gulyakandoz, Shirin, Aleatiko, and Kabernet likernoe literally Cabernet dessert wine in Russian.

Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries. Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov.

Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times. He would often 'sprint' in the final kilometre and had a reputation as being dangerous in these bunch sprints as he would weave from side to side.

This reputation earned him the nickname 'The Terror of Tashkent'. Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatov , light flyweight champion at the Summer Olympics , won the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganov , a sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

In and , gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze medal as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, though he lives in and represents Israel in international competition.

Oksana Chusovitina has attended 7 Olympic games, and won many medals in artistic gymnastics. Some of those medals were won while representing Germany, though she currently competes for Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan is the home of the International Kurash Association. Kurash is an internationalised and modernised form of traditional Uzbek wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan's premier football league is the Uzbek League , which has consisted of 16 teams since The current champions are Lokomotiv Tashkent.

Pakhtakor holds the record for the most Uzbekistan champion titles, having won the league ten times.

The current Player of the Year is Odil Akhmedov. Humo Tashkent , a professional ice hockey team was established in with the aim of joining Kontinental Hockey League KHL , a top level Eurasian league in future.

Before Uzbekistan's independence in , the country was part of the Soviet Union football , rugby union , basketball , ice hockey , and handball national teams.

After independence, Uzbekistan created its own football , rugby union , basketball and futsal national teams.

Tennis is a very popular sport in Uzbekistan, especially after Uzbekistan's sovereignty in This tournament has been held since , and is played on outdoor hard courts.

Chess is quite popular in Uzbekistan. Other popular sports in Uzbekistan include basketball , judo , team handball , baseball , taekwondo , and futsal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sovereign state in Central Asia. State emblem [1]. The next day was then declared a national holiday and a day off from work by the Uzbek government, thus became Uzbekistan's Independence Day.

Main article: History of Uzbekistan. Main article: Geography of Uzbekistan. See also: List of cities in Uzbekistan. Main article: Politics of Uzbekistan.

This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the last paragraph seems to lack preceding context.

Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Human rights in Uzbekistan. See also: Andijan Unrest. Main articles: Regions of Uzbekistan and Districts of Uzbekistan.

Largest cities or towns in Uzbekistan —. Main article: Economy of Uzbekistan. Main article: Demographics of Uzbekistan.

See also: Uzbeks. Main article: Religion in Uzbekistan. Main articles: Uzbek Jews and Bukharan Jews. Main article: Languages of Uzbekistan. Main article: Communications in Uzbekistan.

Main article: Transport in Uzbekistan. Main article: Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Main articles: Foreign relations of Uzbekistan and International organization membership of Uzbekistan.

Main article: Culture of Uzbekistan. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Music of Uzbekistan.

See also: Public holidays in Uzbekistan. Main article: Uzbek cuisine. See also: List of Uzbek dishes and Soviet cuisine.

Main article: Sport in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan portal. Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 1 September Social Services.

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Retrieved 22 April World Bank. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 27 August The State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on statistics.

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